Added: Demetrios Obregon - Date: 20.01.2022 15:02 - Views: 31758 - Clicks: 8203
Although measures such as the Big Five and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI are able to effectively assess personality, they do not say much about where personality comes from. In this section we will consider two major theories of the origin of personality: psychodynamic and humanistic approaches. One of the most important psychological approaches to understanding personality is based on the theorizing of the Austrian physician and psychologist Sigmund Freud —who founded what today is known as the psychodynamic approach, an approach to understanding human behaviour that focuses on the role of unconscious thoughts, feelings, and memories.
Many people know about Freud because his work has had a huge impact on our everyday thinking about psychology, and the psychodynamic approach is one of the most important approaches to psychological therapy Roudinesco, ; Taylor, Freud is probably the best known of all psychologists, in part because of his impressive observation and analyses of personality there are 24 volumes of his writings. Freud was influenced by the work of the French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcotwho had been interviewing patients almost all women who were experiencing what was at the time known as hysteria.
Although it is no longer used to describe a psychological disorder, hysteria at the time referred to a set of personality and physical symptoms that included chronic pain, fainting, seizures, and paralysis. Charcot could find no biological reason for the symptoms. For instance, some women experienced a loss of feeling in their hands and yet not in their arms, and this seemed impossible given that the nerves in the arms are the same as those in the hands.
Charcot was experimenting with the use of hypnosis, and he and Freud found that under hypnosis many of the hysterical patients reported having experienced a traumatic sexual experience, such as sexual abuse, as children Dolnick, These observations led Freud and Charcot to conclude that these disorders were caused by psychological rather than physiological factors. Freud used the observations that he and Charcot had Waiting on the 5th women adult horneys to develop his theory regarding the sources of personality and behaviour, and his insights are central to the fundamental themes of psychology.
In terms of free will, Freud did not believe that we were able to control our own behaviours. Rather, he believed that all behaviours are predetermined by motivations that lie outside our awareness, in the unconscious. Freud argued that we rarely understand why we do what we do, although we can make up explanations for our behaviours after the fact. For Freud Waiting on the 5th women adult horneys mind was like an iceberg, with the many motivations of the unconscious being much larger, but also out of sight, in comparison to the consciousness of which we are aware Figure According to Freudian theory, the id is the component of personality that forms the basis of our most primitive impulses.
The id is entirely unconscious, and it drives our most important motivations, including the sexual drive libido and the aggressive or destructive drive Thanatos. According to Freud, the id is driven by the pleasure principle — the desire for immediate gratification of our sexual and aggressive urges.
The id is why we smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, view pornography, tell mean jokes about people, and engage in other fun or harmful behaviours, often at the cost of doing more productive activities. In stark contrast to the id, the superego represents our sense of morality and oughts. The superego strives for perfection, and when we fail to live up to its demands we feel guilty. In contrast to the id, which is about the pleasure principle, the function of the ego is based on the reality principle — the idea that we must delay gratification of our basic motivations until the appropriate time with the appropriate outlet.
The ego is the largely conscious controller or decision-maker of personality. The ego serves as the intermediary between the desires of the id and the constraints of society contained in the superego Figure We may wish to scream, yell, or hit, and yet our ego normally tells us to wait, reflect, and choose a more appropriate response.
Freud believed that psychological disorders, and particularly the experience of anxiety, occur when there is conflict or imbalance among the motivations of the id, ego, and superego. When the ego finds that the id is pressing too hard for immediate pleasure, it attempts to correct for this problem, often through the use of defence mechanisms — unconscious psychological strategies used to cope with anxiety and maintain a positive self-image. Freud believed that the defence mechanisms were essential for effective coping with everyday life, but that any of them could be overused Table The most controversial, and least scientifically valid, part of Freudian theory is its explanations of personality development.
Freud argued that personality is developed through a series of psychosexual stageseach focusing on pleasure from a different part of the body Table Freud believed that sexuality begins in infancy, and that the appropriate resolution of each stage has implications for later personality development. During this oral stagethe infant obtains sexual pleasure by sucking and drinking.
Infants who receive either too little or too much gratification become fixated or locked in the oral stage, and are likely to regress to these points of fixation under stress, even as adults. According to Freud, who receives too little oral gratification e.
On the other hand, the child who was overfed or overly gratified will resist growing up and try to return to the prior state of dependency by acting helpless, demanding satisfaction from others, and acting in a needy way. The anal stagelasting from about 18 months to three years of ageis when children first experience psychological conflict.
During this stage children desire to experience pleasure through bowel movementsbut they are also being toilet trained to delay this gratification. Freud believed that if this toilet training was either too harsh or too lenient, children would become fixated in the anal stage and become likely to regress to this stage under stress as adults.
If the child received too little anal gratification i. On the other hand, if the parents had been too lenient, the anal expulsive personalitycharacterized by a lack of self-control and a tendency toward messiness and carelessness.
The phallic stagewhich lasts from age three to age six is when the penis for boys and clitoris for girls become the primary erogenous zone for sexual pleasure. During this stage, Freud believed that children develop a powerful but unconscious attraction for the opposite-sex parent, as well as a desire to eliminate the same-sex parent as a rival. Freud based his theory of sexual development in boys the Oedipus complex on the Greek mythological character Oedipus, who unknowingly killed his father Waiting on the 5th women adult horneys married his mother, and then put his own eyes out when he learned what he had done.
Freud believed that girls frequently experienced penis envythe sense of deprivation supposedly experienced by girls because they do not have a penis. The latency stage is a period of relative calm that lasts from about six years to 12 years. During this time, Freud believed that sexual impulses were repressedleading boys and girls to have little or no interest in members of the opposite sex. The fifth and last stage, the genital stagebegins about 12 years of age and lasts into adulthood. According to Freud, sexual impulses return during this time frameand if development has proceeded normally to this point, the child is able to move into the development of mature romantic relationships.
But if earlier problems have not been appropriately resolved, difficulties with establishing intimate love attachments are likely. Taken together, these approaches are known as neo-Freudian theories.
The neo-Freudian theories are theories based on Freudian principles that emphasize the role of the unconscious and early experience in shaping personality but place less evidence on sexuality as the primary motivating force in personality and are more optimistic concerning the prospects for personality growth and change in personality in adults.
Adler proposed that the primary motivation in human personality was not sex or aggression, but rather the striving for superiority. According to Adler, we desire to be better than others and we accomplish this goal by creating a unique and valuable life. We may attempt to satisfy our need for superiority through our school or professional accomplishments, or by our enjoyment of music, athletics, or other activities that seem important to us.
Adler believed that psychological disorders begin in early childhood. He argued that children who are either overly nurtured or overly neglected by their parents are later likely to develop an inferiority complex — a psychological state in which people feel that they are not living up to expectations, leading them to have low self-esteem, with a tendency to try to overcompensate for the negative feelings.
People with an inferiority complex often attempt to demonstrate their superiority to others at all costs, even if it means humiliating, dominating, or alienating them. According to Adler, most psychological disorders result from misguided attempts to compensate for the inferiority complex in order meet the goal of superiority. Jung agreed with Freud about the power of the unconscious but felt that Freud overemphasized the importance of sexuality. Jung argued that in addition to the personal unconscious, there was also a collective unconsciousor a collection of shared ancestral memories.
Jung believed that the collective unconscious contains a variety of archetypesor cross-culturally universal symbolswhich explain the similarities among people in their emotional reactions to many stimuli. Important archetypes include the mother, the goddess, the hero, and the mandala or circle, which Jung believed symbolized a desire for wholeness or unity.
For Jung, the underlying motivation that guides successful personality is self-realizationor learning about and developing the self to the fullest possible extent. Horney believed that parts of Freudian theory, and particularly the ideas of the Oedipus complex and penis envy, were biased against women. For Horney, the underlying motivation that guides personality development is the desire for securitythe ability to develop appropriate and supportive relationships with others.
Another important neo-Freudian was Erich Fromm Fromm believed that the primary human motivation was to escape the fear of death, and contemporary research has shown how our concerns about dying can influence our behaviour. In this research, people have been made to confront their death by writing about it or otherwise being reminded of it, and effects on their behaviour are then observed. In one relevant study, McGregor and colleagues demonstrated that people who are provoked may be particularly aggressive after they have been reminded of the possibility of their own death.
The participants in the study had been selected, on the basis of prior reporting, to have either politically liberal or politically conservative views. When they arrived at the lab they were asked to write a short paragraph describing their opinion of politics in the United States.
Then the participants read the essay that had supposedly just been written by another person. The essay that they read had been prepared by the experimenters to be very negative toward politically liberal views or to be very negative toward politically conservative views. At this point the participants moved on to what they thought was a completely separate study in which they were to be tasting and giving their impression of some foods. Furthermore, they were told that it was necessary for the participants in the research to administer the food samples to each other.
At this point, the participants found out that the food they were going to be sampling was spicy hot sauce and that they were going to be administering the sauce to the very person whose essay they had just read. In addition, the participants read some information about the other person that indicated that he very much disliked eating spicy food. Participants were given a taste of the hot sauce it was really hot! Furthermore, they were told that the other person would have to eat all the sauce. As you can see in Figure On the other hand, the participants who were both provoked by the other person and who had also been reminded of their own death administered ificantly more hot sauce than did the participants in the other three conditions.
When we are concerned about dying we become more motivated to defend these important beliefs from the challenges made by others, in this case by aggressing through the hot sauce. Although Freudian psychologists no longer talk about oral, anal, or genital fixations, they do continue to believe that our childhood experiences and unconscious motivations shape our personalities and our attachments with others, and they still make use of psychodynamic concepts when they conduct psychological therapy.
The problems are, first, that it has proved to be difficult to rigorously test Freudian theory because the predictions that it makes particularly those regarding defence mechanisms are often vague and unfalsifiable and, second, that the aspects of the theory that can be tested often have not received much empirical support. And since the time of Freud, Waiting on the 5th women adult horneys need to repress sexual desires would seem to have become much less necessary as societies have tolerated a wider variety of sexual practices. And yet the psychological disorders that Freud thought we caused by this repression have not decreased.
There is also little scientific support for most of the Freudian defence mechanisms. For example, studies have failed to yield evidence for the existence of repression. People who are exposed to traumatic experiences in war have been found to remember their traumas only too well Kihlstrom, A particular problem for testing Freudian theories is that almost anything that conflicts with a prediction based in Freudian theory can be explained away in terms of the use of a defence mechanism.
A man who expresses a lot of anger toward his father may be seen via Freudian theory to be experiencing the Oedipus complex, which includes conflict with the father. But a man who expresses no anger at all toward the father also may be seen as experiencing the Oedipus complex by repressing the anger. Because Freud hypothesized that either was possible, but did not specify when repression would or would not occur, the theory is difficult to falsify. In terms of the important role of the unconscious, Freud seems to have been at least in part correct.
More and more research demonstrates that a large part of everyday behaviour is driven by processes that are outside our conscious awareness Kihlstrom, And yet, although our unconscious motivations influence every aspect of our learning and behaviour, Freud probably overestimated the extent to which these unconscious motivations are primarily sexual and aggressive.
Taken together, it is fair to say that Freudian theory, like most psychological theories, was not entirely correct and that it has had to be modified over time as the of new studies have become available. But the fundamental ideas about personality that Freud proposed, as well Waiting on the 5th women adult horneys the use of talk therapy as an essential component of therapy, are nevertheless still a major part of psychology and are used by clinical psychologists every day.
Psychoanalytic models of personality were complemented during the s and s by the theories of humanistic psychologists, an approach to psychology that embraces the notions of self-esteem, self-actualization, and free will. In contrast to the proponents of psychoanalysis, humanists embraced the notion of free will. Arguing that people are free to choose their own lives and make their own decisions, humanistic psychologists focused on the underlying motivations that they believed drove personality, focusing on the nature of the self-conceptthe set of beliefs about who we areand self-esteem, our positive feelings about the self.
One of the most important humanists, Abraham Maslowconceptualized personality in terms of a pyramid-shaped hierarchy of motivesalso called the hierarchy of needsFigure At the base of the pyramid are the lowest-level motivations, including hunger and thirst, and safety and belongingness. Maslow argued that only when people are able to meet the lower-level needs are Waiting on the 5th women adult horneys able to move on to achieve the higher-level needs of self-esteem, and eventually self-actualizationwhich is the motivation to develop our innate potential to the fullest possible extent.
Maslow believed that self-actualized people are creative, spontaneous, and loving of themselves and others. They tend to have a few deep friendships rather than many superficial ones, and are generally private. He felt that these individuals do not need to conform to the opinions of others because they are very confident and thus free to express unpopular opinions. Self-actualized people are also likely to have peak experiencesor transcendent moments of tranquility accompanied by a strong sense of connection with others.
Perhaps the best-known humanistic theorist is Carl Rogers Rogers was positive about human nature, viewing people as primarily moral and helpful to others, and believed that we can achieve our full potential for emotional fulfilment if the self-concept is characterized by unconditional positive regard — a set of behaviours including being genuine, open to experience, transparent, able to listen to others, and self-disclosing and empathic.
When we treat ourselves or others with unconditional positive regard, we express understanding and support, even while we may acknowledge failings. Unconditional positive regard allows us to admit our fears and failures, to drop our pretenses, and yet at the same time to feel completely accepted for what we are.
Although there are critiques of the humanistic psychologists e. These researchers focused on the types of emotional distress that we might experience as a result of how we are currently evaluating our self-concept. Higgins proposes that the emotions we experience are determined both by our perceptions of how well our own behaviours meet up to the standards and goals we have provided ourselves our internal standards and by our perceptions of how others think about us our external standards. Furthermore, Higgins argues that different types of self-discrepancies lead to different types of negative emotions.
The participants listed 10 thoughts that they thought described the kind of person they actually are; this is the actual self-concept. Then, participants also listed 10 thoughts that they thought described the type of person they would ideally like to be the ideal self-concept as well as 10 thoughts describing the way that someone else — for instance, a parent — thinks they ought to be the ought self-concept. Higgins then divided his participants into two groups. Those with low self-concept discrepancies were those who listed similar traits on all three lists.
Their ideal, ought, and actual self-concepts were all pretty similar and so they were not considered to be vulnerable to threats to their self-concept. The other half of the participants, those with high self-concept discrepancieswere those for whom the traits listed on the ideal and ought lists were very different from those listed on the actual self list.
These participants were expected to be vulnerable to threats to the self-concept.Waiting on the 5th women adult horneys
email: [email protected] - phone:(450) 141-5472 x 7198
The Origins of Personality